My Research


One of the biggest challenges in cognitive psychology is the problem of how to observe unobservable mental processes. In my research on working memory, one unobservable process that I am interested in is the mechanism or mechanisms by which visual objects are stored. There is uncertainty in the field about how colors are remembered in working memory. Colors might be remembered categorically, perhaps by their name, or they could be remembered continuously, by their specific shade of color. It turns out that like many mental processes, whether people remember colors categorically or continuously is not directly observable. To indirectly observe how people remember colors, I use a technique called psychological process modeling. Using this technique, it is possible to use participants’ responses on a color memory task to infer how often colors are remembered categorically versus continuously. See Hardman, Vergauwe, and Ricker (2017) for more on color memory. In general, I use psychological process modeling in my research to try to observe, albeit indirectly, the unobservable.

Publications


Articles

Rhodes, S., Cowan, N., Hardman, K.O., & Logie, R.H. (2017). Informed Guessing in Change Detection. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition.

Ricker, T.J. & Hardman, K.O. (2017). The Nature of Short-Term Consolidation in Visual Working Memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General.

Hardman, K.O., Vergauwe, E., & Ricker, T.J. (2017). Categorical Working Memory Representations are used in Delayed Estimation of Continuous Colors. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 43(1), 30-54.
PDF of manuscript | R Package

Vergauwe, E., Hardman, K.O., Rouder, J.N., Roemer, E., McAllaster, S., & Cowan, N. (2016). Searching for serial refreshing in working memory: Using response times to track the content of the focus of attention over time. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 23(6), 1818-1824.

Cowan, N., Hardman, K., Saults, J.S., Blume, C.L., Clark, K.M., & Sunday, M.A. (2016). Detection of the number of changes in a display in working memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 42(2), 169-85.

Hardman, K.O. & Cowan, N. (2016). Reasoning and memory: People make varied use of the information available in working memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning Memory and Cognition, 42(5), 700-22.
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Hardman, K.O. & Cowan, N. (2015). Remembering complex objects in visual working memory: Do storage limits restrict objects or features? Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning Memory and Cognition, 41(2), 325-47.
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Talks

Hardman, K.O., Vergauwe, E., & Ricker, T.J. (2015, November). Testing the Absolute Validity of Statistical Models with Applications to Psychological Process Modeling. Speech Presented at the Cognition and Neuroscience Seminar at the University of Missouri, Columbia, MO.

Hardman, K.O. (2015, April). Measuring the Relationship Between Features within Objects in Visual Working Memory. Speech Presented at the Cognition and Neuroscience Seminar at the University of Missouri, Columbia, MO.
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Vergauwe, E., Hardman, K.O., Rouder, J.N., & Cowan, N. (2015, March). Attending to information in working memory: Exploring the process of refreshing through the probe-span task. Oral presentation in symposium “Control of the contents of working memory” at the Inaugural International Convention of Psychological Science, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Vergauwe, E., Roemer, E., Hardman, K., & Cowan, N. (2014, November). Tracing thoughts through the probe-span: Exploring the process of refreshing. Oral presentation presented at 55th Annual meeting of the Psychonomic Society, Long Beach, CA, USA.

Hardman, K.O. (2015, February). Introducing CX: The C++Experiment System. Speech Presented at the Cognition and Neuroscience Seminar at the University of Missouri, Columbia, MO.

Hardman, K.O. (2015, January). Applications of Psychological Process Modeling to Working Memory Research. Speech presented at the University of Missouri Life Sciences Fellowship Seminar, Columbia, MO.
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Hardman, K.O. & Cowan, N. (2014, February). Use of Information in Working Memory Tasks: How Hard are Participants Trying? Speech Presented at the Cognition and Neuroscience Seminar at the University of Missouri, Columbia, MO.
► See the related article Hardman and Cowan (2016)

Hardman, K.O. & Cowan, N. (2013, March). Remembering complex objects in visual working memory. Speech Presented at the Cognition and Neuroscience Seminar at the University of Missouri, Columbia, MO.
► See the related article Hardman and Cowan (2015)


Posters

Hardman, K.O., Vergauwe, E., & Ricker T.J. (2015, November). Testing the Absolute Validity of Mathematical Models used in Working Memory Research. Poster presented at the annual convention of the Psychonomic Society, Chicago, IL.

Clark, K.M., Hardman, K.O., Schachtman, T.R., Saults, J.S., Glass, B.A., & Cowan, N. (2015, November). Development of working memory capacity and precision for tone pitch. Poster presented at the annual convention of the Psychonomic Society, Chicago, IL.

Clark, K.M., Hardman, K., Schachtman, T.R., Saults, J.S., Glass, B.A., & Cowan, N.  (2015, October). Development of working memory capacity and precision for tones. Poster presented at the annual convention of the Cognitive Development Society, Columbus, Ohio.

Hardman, K.O. & Cowan, N. (2014, April). Are People Ideal Users of Information in Working Memory Tasks? Poster session presented at the University of Missouri Life Sciences Week, Columbia, MO.
► See the related article Hardman and Cowan (2016)

Hardman, K.O., & Cowan, N. (2012, August). The Capacity of Visual Working Memory for Complex, Multi-Feature Objects. Poster session presented at the Portland Working Memory Conference, Portland, OR.
► See the related article Hardman and Cowan (2015)

Hardman, K.O., Christensen, D.A., Bergreen, P.M., & Krause, M.A. (2010, May). The relationship between physical activity and memory ability in college-aged adults. Poster session presented at the annual meeting of the Association for Psychological Science, Boston, MA.

Hardman, K.O. (2010, March). Spontaneous trait transference: Can informants take on polar opposite traits? Research capstone project presented in both poster and manuscript form as part of B.S. completion.